Serotonin an inhibitory neurotransmitter, often referred to as the master neurotransmitter, that plays a role in sleep cycle, depression, anxiety, carbohydrate cravings, and PMS.
Dopamine is our focus or joy related neurotransmitter. When dopamine is either elevated (inefficient) or low, symptoms of poor focus or memory, attention issues or poor stress response can be noted.
Norepinephrine an excitatory neurotransmitter that is responsible for stimulatory processes in the body. Norepinephrine also converts epinephrine. This neurotransmitter can cause anxiety at elevated excretion levels, as well as some "mood dampening" effects. Low levels of norepinephrine are associated with low energy and decreased focus ability. Elevated norepinephrine levels can also cause elevated blood pressure.
Epinephrine an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in the body's "fight or flight" response and regulates brain functions such as metabolism, heart rate, and blood pressure. This neurotransmitter will often be elevated when hyperactivity or anxiety is present. Long-term over-stimulation can cause epinephrine levels to be depleted. Epinephrine also regulates heart rate and blood pressure.
Norepi/Epi Ratio The Norepinephrine to epinephrine ratio is calculated to determine the amount of adrenal (our stress organ) fatigue or over-use that is present. Levels between 3-6 are found to be optimal. Levels less than 3 are indicative of stress whether it is emotional or physical. Ratios above 6 are indicative of fatigue. Often, this ratio will be high if the body needs more of the correct form of folic acid (methylation).
GABA an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is often referred to as "nature's valium-like substance".
Glutamate is an excitatory or stimulating neurotransmitter that is reflective of stress. It plays a role in focus. If Glutamate is elevated, one should check labels of foods that are being consumed since MSG (monosodium glutamate) and the many names that it is called as a food additive can be the culprit. Excess glutamate levels can cause significant anxiety, restlessness, sleep cycle disturbances, tics, migraines and headaches. The body will excrete more glutamate when serotonin is low as well.
Histamine is a stimulating neurotransmitter that plays a role in responding to inflammation or allergy. Low levels of histamine are indicative of fatigue.
Creatinine determines whether the sample submitted is viable for testing (hydration/dehydration).